(Edited and Translated by Mio Matsumoto)
Subtitle: Co-Editing - The Red Army - The PFLP
Production - Wakamatsu Production
*News footage of the Red Army hijacking a Japanese airplane
(Background music: The International)
Voice: This is a news film for the construction of the World Red Army.
*News footage of the Red Army hijacking a Japanese airplane
Voice: In March, 1970, the Red Army Faction of the Communist League
hijacked a Japan Airline plane and flew to People's Democratic Republic
of Korea in order to build an international basis of operation.
*News footage of an airplane hijacked by PFLP, and scenes of the Revolutionary
Voice: In September of the same year, the Popular Front for the Liberation
of Palestine hijacked a Pan-Am plane, and with three other airplanes,
blew it up at the Revolutionary Airport, as PFLP began a new armed struggle
and international guerilla warfare. Breaching international boundaries
with armed force — is it a strategic heroism of war, or propaganda?
*Scenes of the Revolutionary Airport)
Subtitle: The best form of propaganda
Is armed struggle
*Urban views of Beirut filmed from a moving car
Voice: What is propaganda? Now it can be defined as people in struggle
speaking the true meaning of the struggle in their own words. But how
and for whom can it be narrated? A PFLP soldier explains their unique
propaganda strategy developed in the process of the Arab liberation movement
in the Middle East.
Appeal by a PFLP soldier:
How do we engage in propaganda activities? From the lessons of the past
five years, it's quite simple. Propaganda is immediately information,
and information is to communicate the truth. Moreover, the supreme form
of truth is armed struggle. Therefore, we believe that armed struggle
is the best form of propaganda. It may be true that the worldwide system
of discursive propaganda is hugely influencing international public opinions,
but it is by the people who fight for liberating themselves through armed
struggles that things are ultimately decided. Of course, every one of
us is fully aware that the propaganda system of American imperialism is
the largest one in human history. They dominate world's TV networks and
newspapers and provides people with false education and movies by maliciously
saying whatever they want. They believe they can do anything.
The people of South Vietnam has only feeble
power, without TV and newspapers of their own, but they fight with the
firm will to fight against imperialist system as their only weapon. And,
what is happening now? The gigantic propaganda system of the United States
is failing to convince people that "This war is right." As days
go by, American people are getting sick and tired, and have started opposing
the war. This is propaganda, our propaganda. Propaganda is action and
struggle. That is the only supreme form of propaganda. However, that action
has to be supported by firm solidarity with various leftist parties, factions,
and by the revolutionary propaganda system. Regardless, the basic is armed
struggle by the masses.
*Scenes of Shatila refugee camp in Beirut
Voice: Similarly, a soldier of the Japanese Communist League Red Army
Faction, which has strategized the 1960's struggle slogan, "Pre-Stage
Armed Uprising," and now recognizes the current situation of the
1970s as an "Armed Stand-Off Stage," says:
Appeal by a Red Army Soldier: What we can say based on our ongoing
struggle is that the direct attack on the enemy power — such as
Osaka-Tokyo War, Daibosatsu Struggle, Bomb-Attack movement against American
military basis, hijacks, attacks on police boxes, seizure of arms, and
the serial finance appropriation struggle — that is, armed struggle
is in and of itself propaganda, and the substance of its military gain
lies in concrete damage inflicted upon the enemy, and fundamental blow
to the ruling structure. And what seizes this truth is nothing but popular
struggle based on numerous guerilla warfare.
Subtitle: Armed Struggle Is Reality
*Montage of TV consumer goods CF and scenes from the Central Red Army
Voice: Is reality fighting the enemy? Who is in reality fighting
the enemy? Are we in reality able to fight the enemy? How is the international
reality of armed struggle being engaged in Japanese reality?
*TV screen showing news reports on the Second Administrative Act in
Voice: How is armed struggle being done, or how is it going to develop?
*View of the Central Red Army Formation Rally
Voice: On September 14th, 1971, the Communist League Red Army Faction
and the Japan Communist Party "Revolutionary Left" Faction issued
a joint manifesto on the creation of the United Red Army.
Appeal by a United Red Army soldier:
This is the correct military formation for popular war, born as it inevitably
was of the process once we defined as skirmishes toward revolutionary
war moving from the 2/17 arms seizure struggle to the serial finance appropriation
Friends and comrades who have gathered
here today! We the Japan Revolutionary Front and the Keihin Anpo Stuggle-Collective,
linked together by the crimson threads of the hijack struggle and 12/18
Struggle, following the 1/25 rally and subsequent development of guerilla
warfare, host this rally for the purpose of fighting Japanese revolutionary
struggle and world revolutionary struggle. With popular struggle as an
axis, directed toward the victory of revolutionary war, the Red Army was
established on July 15th of this year. This united Red Army is the union
of the Red Army Central Brigade and the National Revolutionary Army. This
united army will become a unified force by adding new members through
firm practice of guerilla wars against world imperialism. The united army
will first and foremost engage in guerilla wars, confront various difficulties
in the midst of both armed struggle and military build-up, and eventually
deepen the war policy that had been attained by sacrifices. In the midst
of deepening the war policy, both the Communist League Red Army Faction
Central Committee and the Japan Communist Party Revolutionary Leftist
Faction Kanagawa Prefecture Permanent Committee will examine the lines
of struggle and gain the new-Party formation. The revolutionary army will
fight toward a general national uprising, and for that purpose persist
in guerilla wars for the victory of revolutionary war and the creation
of true communism. The revolutionary army will gain victory by legitimizing
itself through guerilla wars and communizing the army, and establish a
solidarity with all the peoples who fight the World Revolutionary War.
The revolutionary army is the firm and strong axis for the surely germinating
spirit of working people, and is an army for the just war. Comrades, let
us gain the further position in this war, join the United Red Army, and
build the battle front for scorch-the-earth guerilla war!
Subtitle: Armed Struggle
Is The Words of The People Long Suppressed
*Scenes of a rally in Saida refugee camp
Voice: And how are we trying to seize the reality, the reality through
Armed struggle is itself the words of the people long suppressed.
Appeal by a PFLP Woman Soldier: All the revolutions, particularly
in their early stages, should choose appropriate positions for defense
against enemy. It is because for us, the enemy is not only Israel, but
includes the world imperialists, the Zionists, and the reactionary Arab
governments. For the past five years, we have fought the war against the
reactionary Jewish government in various ways. In this process, we thought
of how to defend our revolution, to further the war of liberation for
our country, against the Zionist invasion and the enemy agents of the
reactionary Jordanian government. The answer is here, Jerash Mountain
stretching along the border of Israel and Jordan, that we chose to be
our battle ground, to build our base to start war and expand revolution.
Every day we are in constant live-or-die battles with Israel government,
which is a Zionist agent, and Jordanian government, which is the agent
of Israel. Such strategies and tactics as ours are the products of our
thought and positions immediate to our struggle, much as our Cuban and
Vietnamese comrades have done.
*Scenes from the life in Saida refugee camp
Voice: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine does a war.
Fight. Oppressed people try to live the reality of revolution only through
armed struggle. Try to live as communists.
The PFLP soldiers are not heroes of hijacks. Talk of themselves as communists.
Appeal by a PFLP Woman Soldier: ... So what is my duty? My duty
as a guerilla soldier is to accomplish everything required in guerilla
struggle. For example, it is sometimes hijacking, sometimes giving interviews
... Everything like these.
We have proposed and practiced this war,
but there are variety of things we need for this war. Therefore, I am
practically learning many aspects of the war, not just one side. That
is why I cannot honestly point to one thing and say this is what I am
doing. But right now, I believe that I am engaged in a struggle to propagandize
But in your question of what I think of
my being seen as a star hero of hijack, you added that I do not see myself
as a hero. To hear someone speak of me that way, I feel very happy.
But in any case we do not talk of ourselves
as individuals. It is because revolution is always born of people, for
people, and because it is not meant for general humanity. That is why,
being among the whole, individual is not of much significance.
And I am very very happy to hear you say
that I am not hero. The reason is that I never heard anyone speak like
this before, and I think that to not become a hero in the midst of revolutionary
Palestinians and proletariats waging a war means that that person is simply
doing his or her duty, not as some sort of hobby. In my case, my duty
involves not just hijacking, but is something with which death always
accompanies my life.
Therefore, I will reply to those people who see us as heroes, that we
are never heroes, that we are not fighting this war as our hobby, and
that we are simply doing our duty, and I like to insist that we dedicate
ourselves to revolution, and that our lives are for revolution, not for
being seen as heroes.
*Jerash/ Gaza refugee camp
Voice: People suppressed in the barracks of refugee camps. People
exposed to indiscriminate shelling. Is it people, or communists, who are
Appeal by a PLP Woman Soldier: A revolutionary must dedicate his
or her personal life in actual struggle and practice it. Therefore, there
is no such thing as personal life or life in struggle, because struggle
is, for all the people involved in a revolution, an individual, and total
Therefore, I neither think nor feel that
there is a personal life and then there is life in armed struggle. The
separate lives should be unified and expanded. As revolutionaries, we
try not to live our lives conceitedly, and act accordingly. But as any
revolutionary does, we believe in our future. From my experience as a
school teacher, I speak of "wealth": you could go to any place
if you have money. But I gave up everything to fight the enemy. We have
to sacrifice everything we have for this struggle. It is because we fight
for this country and people, and at the same time live like them. Only
by doing so could we have something to share with the proletariat, and
was I able to throw away my petit-bourgeois-ness. And there are many people
like me among us, as there were many before us. People have been reforming
themselves. They are teachers, and I am their pupil who is learning to
abandon petit-bourgeois life. They are also studying and practicing the
proletarian life. Only this way of life will elevate and advance revolution,
and retain the leadership of — not petit-bourgeoisie, but —
the proletariat class. Because of this, it is only through such a situation
and principle that people become truly revolutionary people, and it is
only the proletariat class that, without having learnt concept and ideal
about "people," desires revolution. The reason is that the petit-bourgeois,
because they do not live the life of the proletariat, cannot share their
problems and hence cannot reach the horizon that we have arrived. That
is why we are fighting -- not as petit-bourgeois, but — as proletariat.
The meaning of revolution as a revolution lies in this, that petit-bourgeois
cannot fight the way proletariat can.
Subtitle: Armed Struggle
Is A War
*Scenes of Syria/ Israel Border, PFLP Reconnaissance Mission
Voice: Armed Struggle is a war.
War. Oppressed people wage a war. What
is their weapon to defeat the enemy? What is people's weapon? The world
is engaged in wars everyday. History has done wars everyday. Has there
ever been a peaceful day for the oppressed people? A soldier, imprisoned
as the result of armed struggle, speaks:
Appeal by a Red Army soldier on court struggle:
At this Tokyo Local Court, there is one thing that needs to be clarified
in the beginning. It is the fact that I am imprisoned and dragged into
the current trial because I am held by the enemy a prisoner of war, that
is, a POW during wartime.
Red Army soldiers belong to combat-practice
unit of revolutionary war, not loquacious chatterbox. We know that the
ethics required of us doers is that of silence and determination. Our
present is a new revolutionary age which demands that we refuse to express
revolution in harmless chatters and a thousands of letter heads, and that
we practice decisive action, and that is why we do not prefer to engage
in meaningless talks in bourgeois court. Therefore, we do not accept our
current designation as "defendants," and we constantly think
of transforming our existence into offensive weapon.
What must be clarified is that it is imperialists,
the government bourgeoisie, and the prosecutors who have to be judged.
In order to reverse the positions of judges and the judged, the world
revolution must be resolutely executed. And the history will inscribe
us as heroes of the people and prove our innocence.
Comrades, let us decisively crush the suppression
by the mean and cowardly enemy power against the factions for revolutionary
war. We must establish legal and illegal mass-based support network in
every corner of civil society by forming alliance with and backing armed
struggle. Organize the influence and extension of armed struggle, build
up legal and illegal material power against the enemy power, minimize
the sacrifice and damage of the revolutionary force, generate new revolutionary
soldiers far surpassing previous ones, accumulate gains and lessons from
victories, and create the continuity and sustainability of armed struggle.
Finally, we express our determination to
continue to victoriously fight against the mean and cowardly enemy power
through this court struggle, and we express this message of solidarity
to many people who support our court struggle and hijack struggle. I end
my appeal by calling on all people, not only the youth, but also the elderly,
children, men and women, to volunteer to be Red Army soldiers and hear
the call of the war of world proletaria.
*Scenes of military exercises on the boarder area of Lebanon, Jordan,
Voice: A Palestinian soldier, Mr. Fedain, who lives everyday of either
"my death" or "enemy's death" in the war of armed
Appeal by a PFLP soldier: Our morality is to fight and to win.
It is because the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine fights
with people and fight for the people. This morality is evinced by the
oppression against the people in refugee camps in the countries under
occupation. The morality of us guerilla soldiers is that the people support
revolution, and their purpose and aspiration lie in revolution. We do
not fight because we live. We fight to live. Fighting is living.
Moreover, we have to think how to make
use of objective situations, subjective battle power, and other various
through thorough understanding of the laws and concepts of revolution
and our analyses of the reality. Revolutions are all similar to each other,
but every revolution has its own details and character. Therefore, we
the PFLP should constantly learn and practice the principles of popular
revolution. We have to choose strategy most appropriate to our situation.
This is because the political and military position of Palestine guerillas
is an extremely difficult one. For example, in 1936, when we fought Zionists’
immigration to Palestine, and in 1967, when Arab nationalism made pact
with reactionary governments and declined into the petit-bourgeois ideology,
our revolution did not have clear political strategy. Neither did we have
a theoretical strategy for revolution. For that reason we were defeated
and many comrades were sacrificed. Now we know: Guerilla war is not fought
in a fixed single place. A guerilla should first recognize that he is
a unit in war. Understanding this, he gains people's purpose and aspiration
— revolution — as the morality of guerilla soldiers, and make
this our strategy.
Voice: The morality of oppressed people is not that they fight
because they live. They fight to live, and fighting is living. In the
desert of rocks and sand dust, Fedine lives and fights like trees and
grass. It is within the war that lived peace is being born as the word
of people. They learn guns with a gun in one hand; they learn things through
guns. Is the first word that oppressed people can seize guns and bullets?
Subtitle: Armed Struggle Is to Standby
*Scenes from PFLP school in the base of Jerash Mountain area
Voice: They make no distinction between front line and hind line.
Their frontline base is a place for their "rich" education.
Streets are the place for the people to discover/ use their language as
"weapon." For them there is no difference between urban guerilla
and guerilla warfare. Guerilla soldiers learn in battlefield, and masses
of people make their battlefield their residency.
(PFLP’s revolutionary anthem is sung in background)
*Scenes from a battlefront inside Israel border
(The International is sung in unison)
*Scenes of students and their study at a school in the frontline base
in the area of Lebanon, Syria, and Israel borders
Voice: Before us spreads a landscape that armed struggle is to stand
by, as the landscape of the world. We can learn from the oppressed Palestinians
that to stand by is to innovate the immediately usable weapon, and to
stand by with the arms.
*Scenes of study session and military exercise in Saida refugee camp
Voice: What we can learn from the Arab liberation movement is whether
there were enemies of Palestinian people, beside the Zionists of world
imperialism. PFLP was established in 1967, when Arab liberation movement
was in the hegemonic war among various Arab governments and ethnic groups;
PFLP began insisting on the necessity of breaking away from other factions
and shifting its goal from nationalism to international communism. And
for the past five years, it has continuously substantiated its strategic
theory through armed struggle. Can one say that PFLP was able to stand
on the principle of anti-nationalism? The word "Palestine" means
"brave soldier" in the ancient Canaan language. Two thousand
years ago they fought the invading Hebrews, Roman Empire, the Crusade,
and now the modern Zionists. They say it is not just the past five years
but over four thousand years that they have been fighting.
They say they are the nation of fighting
soldiers. They say they establish a line of fighting not only Zionists
but now Jordanian and other state forces, in the shadow of the Arab national
movement's official guerilla armies.
They are not the soldiers of capitalist war.
They are not the soldiers of armies with rewards/ salary.
They are the fighting "soldiers of life."
They are the people who make military matters their "lives."
They are neither citizens nor nationals; they are the people called "oppressed
They make no distinction between frontline and hind the line. Their frontline
base is the place for their "rich" education. Streets are the
place to discover/ use the weapons as people's language. For them there
is no difference between urban guerilla and guerilla warfare. Guerilla
soldiers learn in battlefield, and masses of people make their residency
Subtitle: Who Is Our Enemy?
Who Is Our Comrade?
*Scenes of Military Reconnaissance in an Israel border area and Interview
with French PFLP Volunteer Soldier
Appeal by a PFLP French Volunteer Soldier: I came here to understand
more fully the Palestinian Revolution. I think that to understand this
revolution, you must be part of it. It is necessary to live the revolution.
And another thing is, the reason I am with PFLP is that I believe PFLP
can lead people to the victory of revolution. Only PFLP has the strategy
and tactics, that is, correct ideology, for the world revolution. I think
that they have been able to correctly analyze the problems of Palestine
in the Middle East and the problems of Arab people in general. I think
we cannot gain victory without Marx-Leninism. And it is only PFLP that
is keenly aware of the prospect that people can win together with Marx-Leninism.
*Views from a Reconnaissance Jeep in an Israel Border Area, and Interview
with a PFLP Woman Soldier
Message from PFLP Woman Soldier: I would like to send message to Japanese
comrades, revolutionary comrades. What has to be said first is that we
have to bring together and unify the revolutionaries of the world. It
is because all our struggles are one single struggle, and we cannot afford
to be divided. Also because the forces of today's world imperialism are
emerging as a unified power. We aim to annihilate our enemies. For this
aim, we have to engage in a collective struggle to win this war to expel
the forces of world imperialists. Let us arise now on the popular front
of world revolutionaries, to maintain the leadership of the proletariat!
Japanese comrades, and the revolutionary
comrades of China, Vietnam, and the rest of the world, let us posit the
following slogan, and persist in fighting for its realization!
Anti-imperialist revolutionary forces of the world, unite!
Crush imperialism and establish the proletarian power!
*Scenes of an Israel Border Area, and Interview with a PFLP Soldier
Message from PFLP Soldier: I would like to send a message from the
frontline to the comrades in Japan. We are hoping to see the fire of revolution
burn up in the world. Guevara once said he hoped to see the entire world
become like Vietnam, and that is the same hope we have. That is why we
hope from the bottom of our heart that, by maintaining constant communication
between us, as we have learned much from your struggles, you will learn
from our experiences and use the lessons. With our collective struggle,
we can decisively defeat the imperialists who oppress and exploit our
people. The will and emotion of people cannot be expressed by newspaper
reports, but only by the commencement of armed struggle.
*Scenes of Patrolling Soldiers, and Interview with PFLP Soldier
Message from PFLP Soldier: Representing PFLP, I send this message
to our Japanese comrades, revolutionary groups, and revolutionary factions.
Comrades, you may have heard the news through the imperialist propaganda
system that Palestinian people are currently exhausted, that they have
given up struggle, and that they are defeated by the reactionary Israel.
Comrades, do not believe them. We are in fact in the middle of struggle.
There is no end to our struggle. We have our final purpose, and we continue
to fight for its realization. No one and nothing can prevent us.
Japanese comrades, we sincerely hope that
you will fight our common enemy by supporting us. Support us by any means.
Send us medicine, and everything. But the best support is that our Japanese
comrades rise up and strike blows against the monster of American imperialism.
Let us advance our struggle by weakening American imperialism!
Japanese comrades, we are fighting the common enemy!
We are fighting on many fronts all over the world!
Japanese comrades, let us charge together against the monster, and defeat
*Scenes of an Israel Border Area, and the Inauguration Meeting of
the Central Red Army
Voice: A Communist League- Red Army soldier speaks:
Appeal by Imprisoned Red Army Soldier: Like the brothers of Vietnam,
like the brothers of Palestine, and like the brothers of the Black Panther
Party, we too have grown and learned numerous lessons through a long struggle.
Our Hijack struggle of March 1970 provided us with a foray into becoming
a truly international subject. Similarly, the Arms Seizure Struggle in
October of the same year provided us with a foray into becoming a truly
armed subject. Moreover, in this struggle we have gained valuable brothers
who march together with us. PFLP and the Japan Communist Party Leftist
Faction are such brothers and comrades.
With supreme honor, we receive the message
from our dearest brothers and dearest comrades, PFLP. Since our struggles
and the lessons belong to the brothers and comrades of the world as common
property, we too shall respond to the brothers and comrades, and send
a message about our own struggles and lessons with utmost brotherly love
and comradely respect.
Revolution and war are nothing more or
less than their internationality and violence. As exemplified by our hijack,
PFLP's hijack, the ship Granma of Castro et al, and Russian Red Army's
march into Poland, revolution is, and war is, true only in its internationality
and violence, as its true substance is "borderless army."
This is the reason why the "Anti-Imperialist/Anti-Zionist/
Third World War" that our PFLP brothers propose and practice, and
the "Anti-America/Anti-Japan War" of our Chinese brothers, are,
in our own words, one and the same with what we propose and practice as
the "World Revolutionary War."
Our former companions were too arrogant
and Idealist. Starting from the "Anti-Stalinism," the critic
of Mao as "nationalist/ empiricist," and the critic of Ho Chi
Min as "Stalinist," etc – they were nothing but idealism.
What about us? With our "transitional
world theory," we were able to demonstrate relative correctness of
our position, but our "world transition theory" was nothing
more than "world transition theory." Since we have not been
able to discover anything beyond that theory, we have been more or less
idealist. However, right now, through our hijack struggle, we are beginning
to grasp and substantialize something that goes beyond mere theory in
the form of "borderless army." The brothers and comrades of
PFLP, let us join in the great union of the "borderless army"
through communication of all areas – soldiers, weapons, technology,
information, sources, and theories!
*Scenes of PFLP Patrol on a Desert Area of Jordanian-Israel Border,
and Interview with a Red Army Woman Soldier
Voice: A Communist League Red Army Soldier speaks: I think that the
purpose of my coming to Palestine involves a question of how we grasp
the world revolutionary war in our theoretical structure, in the form
of a world revolutionary theory, in the confrontational phase of the struggle,
and how we express it. Last year's hijack struggle of ours proved that
the wave of world revolutionary war could only be guided by military actions;
here arose another important question: who shares Red Army’s line?
While we were able to imagine it only through petit-bourgeois news media
before, we now needed to understand it by way of actually practicing the
(. . . ) To put it straightforwardly, when I look at the issue of how
Japanese class struggle will develop in the future, from afar in Palestine,
I feel that (. . .) the questions of the stage of Japanese class struggle
on the scale of world revolutionary development, and what we in Japan
indeed share with the Palestine struggle have been asked in awfully insufficient
manners. Because of such insufficiency, the awareness of problematic possessed
by the nine people who went to North Korea, by me in Palestine, and by
our comrades in Japan, all differ from one another, and from such disjuncture,
we can only deduce the necessity of more internal violence and inter-faction
politics and struggles, but the revolutionary subject, which tries to
rise to the level of World Revolutionary War, has to be created through
World War factions and world revolutionaries simultaneously sharing all
military matters as the act of collective actions and collective military
front. For that reason I anticipate the emergence of the question of a
strategy for world revolution, of how we can defeat world imperialism
through military actions in concert with Black Panthers and Tupamaros,
and only through such united military actions, can the problem of "world
party" be discussed fully, and in this sense, what we have long talked
about — the formation of World Party - World Red Army - World Revolutionary
War United Front — shall be realized only through actual struggle
as to how to guide such a united military action.
Subtitle: The Best Form of Propaganda
Is Armed Struggle
*Scenes of Nabatie Front Base in Lebanon
Appeal to the Red Army Faction from PFLP Soldier:
We agree wholeheartedly with the Japan Red Army Faction that proposes
a united action with every organization and party which is actively fighting
world imperialism here and now. PFLP supports from the bottom of our heart
the policy of the united military action, and is ready to participate
in it. However, in our current situation, we face severe difficulty realizing
such an aim. Despite the difficulty, we are prepared to support the policy
as much as we can. And we bet our own possibility in the realization of
the goal. We send the message of solidarity and prayer for the success
of struggles waged by every comrades fighting our common enemy.
Salute, dear comrades of Japan. — General Secretary, PFLP.
Subtitle: This Is A War
*Scenes of PFLP Soldiers in Ranger Exercise
Subtitle: The Red Army-The PFLP: World War Declaration
*Scenes of PFLP Revolutionary Airport
Subtitle: Constructing Revolutionary Battleground Is Practicing Armed
Voice: Creating Revolutionary Battleground Is Practicing Armed
*Scenes of PFLP Revolutionary Airport
(All messages and appeals aired in mix)
*Scene of Desert in Israel Border Area
(The International is sung)
Subtitle: Revolution Is World War
Revolution = World War
For Armed Struggle!
(The International is sung in unison)
*"Gunpoint" in kanji is inverted.