(Edited and Translated by Mio Matsumoto)


Subtitle: Co-Editing - The Red Army - The PFLP
Production - Wakamatsu Production

*News footage of the Red Army hijacking a Japanese airplane
(Background music: The International)

Voice: This is a news film for the construction of the World Red Army.

*News footage of the Red Army hijacking a Japanese airplane
In March, 1970, the Red Army Faction of the Communist League hijacked a Japan Airline plane and flew to People's Democratic Republic of Korea in order to build an international basis of operation.

*News footage of an airplane hijacked by PFLP, and scenes of the Revolutionary Airport
In September of the same year, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacked a Pan-Am plane, and with three other airplanes, blew it up at the Revolutionary Airport, as PFLP began a new armed struggle and international guerilla warfare. Breaching international boundaries with armed force — is it a strategic heroism of war, or propaganda?

*Scenes of the Revolutionary Airport)
The best form of propaganda
      Is armed struggle

*Urban views of Beirut filmed from a moving car
What is propaganda? Now it can be defined as people in struggle speaking the true meaning of the struggle in their own words. But how and for whom can it be narrated? A PFLP soldier explains their unique propaganda strategy developed in the process of the Arab liberation movement in the Middle East.

Appeal by a PFLP soldier:
How do we engage in propaganda activities? From the lessons of the past five years, it's quite simple. Propaganda is immediately information, and information is to communicate the truth. Moreover, the supreme form of truth is armed struggle. Therefore, we believe that armed struggle is the best form of propaganda. It may be true that the worldwide system of discursive propaganda is hugely influencing international public opinions, but it is by the people who fight for liberating themselves through armed struggles that things are ultimately decided. Of course, every one of us is fully aware that the propaganda system of American imperialism is the largest one in human history. They dominate world's TV networks and newspapers and provides people with false education and movies by maliciously saying whatever they want. They believe they can do anything.
      The people of South Vietnam has only feeble power, without TV and newspapers of their own, but they fight with the firm will to fight against imperialist system as their only weapon. And, what is happening now? The gigantic propaganda system of the United States is failing to convince people that "This war is right." As days go by, American people are getting sick and tired, and have started opposing the war. This is propaganda, our propaganda. Propaganda is action and struggle. That is the only supreme form of propaganda. However, that action has to be supported by firm solidarity with various leftist parties, factions, and by the revolutionary propaganda system. Regardless, the basic is armed struggle by the masses.

*Scenes of Shatila refugee camp in Beirut
Similarly, a soldier of the Japanese Communist League Red Army Faction, which has strategized the 1960's struggle slogan, "Pre-Stage Armed Uprising," and now recognizes the current situation of the 1970s as an "Armed Stand-Off Stage," says:
Appeal by a Red Army Soldier: What we can say based on our ongoing struggle is that the direct attack on the enemy power — such as Osaka-Tokyo War, Daibosatsu Struggle, Bomb-Attack movement against American military basis, hijacks, attacks on police boxes, seizure of arms, and the serial finance appropriation struggle — that is, armed struggle is in and of itself propaganda, and the substance of its military gain lies in concrete damage inflicted upon the enemy, and fundamental blow to the ruling structure. And what seizes this truth is nothing but popular struggle based on numerous guerilla warfare.

Subtitle: Armed Struggle Is Reality

*Montage of TV consumer goods CF and scenes from the Central Red Army Formation Rally
Voice: Is reality fighting the enemy? Who is in reality fighting the enemy? Are we in reality able to fight the enemy? How is the international reality of armed struggle being engaged in Japanese reality?

*TV screen showing news reports on the Second Administrative Act in Sanrizuka
How is armed struggle being done, or how is it going to develop?

*View of the Central Red Army Formation Rally
On September 14th, 1971, the Communist League Red Army Faction and the Japan Communist Party "Revolutionary Left" Faction issued a joint manifesto on the creation of the United Red Army.
Appeal by a United Red Army soldier:
This is the correct military formation for popular war, born as it inevitably was of the process once we defined as skirmishes toward revolutionary war moving from the 2/17 arms seizure struggle to the serial finance appropriation struggle.
      Friends and comrades who have gathered here today! We the Japan Revolutionary Front and the Keihin Anpo Stuggle-Collective, linked together by the crimson threads of the hijack struggle and 12/18 Struggle, following the 1/25 rally and subsequent development of guerilla warfare, host this rally for the purpose of fighting Japanese revolutionary struggle and world revolutionary struggle. With popular struggle as an axis, directed toward the victory of revolutionary war, the Red Army was established on July 15th of this year. This united Red Army is the union of the Red Army Central Brigade and the National Revolutionary Army. This united army will become a unified force by adding new members through firm practice of guerilla wars against world imperialism. The united army will first and foremost engage in guerilla wars, confront various difficulties in the midst of both armed struggle and military build-up, and eventually deepen the war policy that had been attained by sacrifices. In the midst of deepening the war policy, both the Communist League Red Army Faction Central Committee and the Japan Communist Party Revolutionary Leftist Faction Kanagawa Prefecture Permanent Committee will examine the lines of struggle and gain the new-Party formation. The revolutionary army will fight toward a general national uprising, and for that purpose persist in guerilla wars for the victory of revolutionary war and the creation of true communism. The revolutionary army will gain victory by legitimizing itself through guerilla wars and communizing the army, and establish a solidarity with all the peoples who fight the World Revolutionary War. The revolutionary army is the firm and strong axis for the surely germinating spirit of working people, and is an army for the just war. Comrades, let us gain the further position in this war, join the United Red Army, and build the battle front for scorch-the-earth guerilla war!

Subtitle: Armed Struggle
      As Weapon
      Is The Words of The People Long Suppressed

*Scenes of a rally in Saida refugee camp
And how are we trying to seize the reality, the reality through armed struggle?
Armed struggle is itself the words of the people long suppressed.
Appeal by a PFLP Woman Soldier: All the revolutions, particularly in their early stages, should choose appropriate positions for defense against enemy. It is because for us, the enemy is not only Israel, but includes the world imperialists, the Zionists, and the reactionary Arab governments. For the past five years, we have fought the war against the reactionary Jewish government in various ways. In this process, we thought of how to defend our revolution, to further the war of liberation for our country, against the Zionist invasion and the enemy agents of the reactionary Jordanian government. The answer is here, Jerash Mountain stretching along the border of Israel and Jordan, that we chose to be our battle ground, to build our base to start war and expand revolution. Every day we are in constant live-or-die battles with Israel government, which is a Zionist agent, and Jordanian government, which is the agent of Israel. Such strategies and tactics as ours are the products of our thought and positions immediate to our struggle, much as our Cuban and Vietnamese comrades have done.

*Scenes from the life in Saida refugee camp
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine does a war. Fight. Oppressed people try to live the reality of revolution only through armed struggle. Try to live as communists.
The PFLP soldiers are not heroes of hijacks. Talk of themselves as communists.
Appeal by a PFLP Woman Soldier: ... So what is my duty? My duty as a guerilla soldier is to accomplish everything required in guerilla struggle. For example, it is sometimes hijacking, sometimes giving interviews ... Everything like these.
      We have proposed and practiced this war, but there are variety of things we need for this war. Therefore, I am practically learning many aspects of the war, not just one side. That is why I cannot honestly point to one thing and say this is what I am doing. But right now, I believe that I am engaged in a struggle to propagandize our "power."
      But in your question of what I think of my being seen as a star hero of hijack, you added that I do not see myself as a hero. To hear someone speak of me that way, I feel very happy.
      But in any case we do not talk of ourselves as individuals. It is because revolution is always born of people, for people, and because it is not meant for general humanity. That is why, being among the whole, individual is not of much significance.
      And I am very very happy to hear you say that I am not hero. The reason is that I never heard anyone speak like this before, and I think that to not become a hero in the midst of revolutionary Palestinians and proletariats waging a war means that that person is simply doing his or her duty, not as some sort of hobby. In my case, my duty involves not just hijacking, but is something with which death always accompanies my life.
Therefore, I will reply to those people who see us as heroes, that we are never heroes, that we are not fighting this war as our hobby, and that we are simply doing our duty, and I like to insist that we dedicate ourselves to revolution, and that our lives are for revolution, not for being seen as heroes.

*Jerash/ Gaza refugee camp
People suppressed in the barracks of refugee camps. People exposed to indiscriminate shelling. Is it people, or communists, who are suppressed?
Appeal by a PLP Woman Soldier: A revolutionary must dedicate his or her personal life in actual struggle and practice it. Therefore, there is no such thing as personal life or life in struggle, because struggle is, for all the people involved in a revolution, an individual, and total life.
      Therefore, I neither think nor feel that there is a personal life and then there is life in armed struggle. The separate lives should be unified and expanded. As revolutionaries, we try not to live our lives conceitedly, and act accordingly. But as any revolutionary does, we believe in our future. From my experience as a school teacher, I speak of "wealth": you could go to any place if you have money. But I gave up everything to fight the enemy. We have to sacrifice everything we have for this struggle. It is because we fight for this country and people, and at the same time live like them. Only by doing so could we have something to share with the proletariat, and was I able to throw away my petit-bourgeois-ness. And there are many people like me among us, as there were many before us. People have been reforming themselves. They are teachers, and I am their pupil who is learning to abandon petit-bourgeois life. They are also studying and practicing the proletarian life. Only this way of life will elevate and advance revolution, and retain the leadership of — not petit-bourgeoisie, but — the proletariat class. Because of this, it is only through such a situation and principle that people become truly revolutionary people, and it is only the proletariat class that, without having learnt concept and ideal about "people," desires revolution. The reason is that the petit-bourgeois, because they do not live the life of the proletariat, cannot share their problems and hence cannot reach the horizon that we have arrived. That is why we are fighting -- not as petit-bourgeois, but — as proletariat. The meaning of revolution as a revolution lies in this, that petit-bourgeois cannot fight the way proletariat can.


Subtitle: Armed Struggle
Is A War

*Scenes of Syria/ Israel Border, PFLP Reconnaissance Mission
Armed Struggle is a war.
      War. Oppressed people wage a war. What is their weapon to defeat the enemy? What is people's weapon? The world is engaged in wars everyday. History has done wars everyday. Has there ever been a peaceful day for the oppressed people? A soldier, imprisoned as the result of armed struggle, speaks:
Appeal by a Red Army soldier on court struggle:
At this Tokyo Local Court, there is one thing that needs to be clarified in the beginning. It is the fact that I am imprisoned and dragged into the current trial because I am held by the enemy a prisoner of war, that is, a POW during wartime.
      Red Army soldiers belong to combat-practice unit of revolutionary war, not loquacious chatterbox. We know that the ethics required of us doers is that of silence and determination. Our present is a new revolutionary age which demands that we refuse to express revolution in harmless chatters and a thousands of letter heads, and that we practice decisive action, and that is why we do not prefer to engage in meaningless talks in bourgeois court. Therefore, we do not accept our current designation as "defendants," and we constantly think of transforming our existence into offensive weapon.
      What must be clarified is that it is imperialists, the government bourgeoisie, and the prosecutors who have to be judged. In order to reverse the positions of judges and the judged, the world revolution must be resolutely executed. And the history will inscribe us as heroes of the people and prove our innocence.
      Comrades, let us decisively crush the suppression by the mean and cowardly enemy power against the factions for revolutionary war. We must establish legal and illegal mass-based support network in every corner of civil society by forming alliance with and backing armed struggle. Organize the influence and extension of armed struggle, build up legal and illegal material power against the enemy power, minimize the sacrifice and damage of the revolutionary force, generate new revolutionary soldiers far surpassing previous ones, accumulate gains and lessons from victories, and create the continuity and sustainability of armed struggle.
      Finally, we express our determination to continue to victoriously fight against the mean and cowardly enemy power through this court struggle, and we express this message of solidarity to many people who support our court struggle and hijack struggle. I end my appeal by calling on all people, not only the youth, but also the elderly, children, men and women, to volunteer to be Red Army soldiers and hear the call of the war of world proletaria.

*Scenes of military exercises on the boarder area of Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel
A Palestinian soldier, Mr. Fedain, who lives everyday of either "my death" or "enemy's death" in the war of armed struggle, speaks:
Appeal by a PFLP soldier: Our morality is to fight and to win. It is because the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine fights with people and fight for the people. This morality is evinced by the oppression against the people in refugee camps in the countries under occupation. The morality of us guerilla soldiers is that the people support revolution, and their purpose and aspiration lie in revolution. We do not fight because we live. We fight to live. Fighting is living.
      Moreover, we have to think how to make use of objective situations, subjective battle power, and other various revolutionary experiences
through thorough understanding of the laws and concepts of revolution and our analyses of the reality. Revolutions are all similar to each other, but every revolution has its own details and character. Therefore, we the PFLP should constantly learn and practice the principles of popular revolution. We have to choose strategy most appropriate to our situation. This is because the political and military position of Palestine guerillas is an extremely difficult one. For example, in 1936, when we fought Zionists’ immigration to Palestine, and in 1967, when Arab nationalism made pact with reactionary governments and declined into the petit-bourgeois ideology, our revolution did not have clear political strategy. Neither did we have a theoretical strategy for revolution. For that reason we were defeated and many comrades were sacrificed. Now we know: Guerilla war is not fought in a fixed single place. A guerilla should first recognize that he is a unit in war. Understanding this, he gains people's purpose and aspiration — revolution — as the morality of guerilla soldiers, and make this our strategy.
Voice: The morality of oppressed people is not that they fight because they live. They fight to live, and fighting is living. In the desert of rocks and sand dust, Fedine lives and fights like trees and grass. It is within the war that lived peace is being born as the word of people. They learn guns with a gun in one hand; they learn things through guns. Is the first word that oppressed people can seize guns and bullets?
Subtitle: Armed Struggle Is to Standby

*Scenes from PFLP school in the base of Jerash Mountain area
They make no distinction between front line and hind line. Their frontline base is a place for their "rich" education. Streets are the place for the people to discover/ use their language as "weapon." For them there is no difference between urban guerilla and guerilla warfare. Guerilla soldiers learn in battlefield, and masses of people make their battlefield their residency.
(PFLP’s revolutionary anthem is sung in background)

*Scenes from a battlefront inside Israel border
(The International is sung in unison)

*Scenes of students and their study at a school in the frontline base in the area of Lebanon, Syria, and Israel borders
Before us spreads a landscape that armed struggle is to stand by, as the landscape of the world. We can learn from the oppressed Palestinians that to stand by is to innovate the immediately usable weapon, and to stand by with the arms.

*Scenes of study session and military exercise in Saida refugee camp
What we can learn from the Arab liberation movement is whether there were enemies of Palestinian people, beside the Zionists of world imperialism. PFLP was established in 1967, when Arab liberation movement was in the hegemonic war among various Arab governments and ethnic groups; PFLP began insisting on the necessity of breaking away from other factions and shifting its goal from nationalism to international communism. And for the past five years, it has continuously substantiated its strategic theory through armed struggle. Can one say that PFLP was able to stand on the principle of anti-nationalism? The word "Palestine" means "brave soldier" in the ancient Canaan language. Two thousand years ago they fought the invading Hebrews, Roman Empire, the Crusade, and now the modern Zionists. They say it is not just the past five years but over four thousand years that they have been fighting.
      They say they are the nation of fighting soldiers. They say they establish a line of fighting not only Zionists but now Jordanian and other state forces, in the shadow of the Arab national movement's official guerilla armies.
They are not the soldiers of capitalist war.
They are not the soldiers of armies with rewards/ salary.
They are the fighting "soldiers of life."
They are the people who make military matters their "lives." They are neither citizens nor nationals; they are the people called "oppressed Palestinians."
They make no distinction between frontline and hind the line. Their frontline base is the place for their "rich" education. Streets are the place to discover/ use the weapons as people's language. For them there is no difference between urban guerilla and guerilla warfare. Guerilla soldiers learn in battlefield, and masses of people make their residency their battlefield.


Subtitle: Who Is Our Enemy?
      Who Is Our Comrade?

*Scenes of Military Reconnaissance in an Israel border area and Interview with French PFLP Volunteer Soldier
Appeal by a PFLP French Volunteer Soldier:
I came here to understand more fully the Palestinian Revolution. I think that to understand this revolution, you must be part of it. It is necessary to live the revolution. And another thing is, the reason I am with PFLP is that I believe PFLP can lead people to the victory of revolution. Only PFLP has the strategy and tactics, that is, correct ideology, for the world revolution. I think that they have been able to correctly analyze the problems of Palestine in the Middle East and the problems of Arab people in general. I think we cannot gain victory without Marx-Leninism. And it is only PFLP that is keenly aware of the prospect that people can win together with Marx-Leninism.

*Views from a Reconnaissance Jeep in an Israel Border Area, and Interview with a PFLP Woman Soldier
Message from PFLP Woman Soldier:
I would like to send message to Japanese comrades, revolutionary comrades. What has to be said first is that we have to bring together and unify the revolutionaries of the world. It is because all our struggles are one single struggle, and we cannot afford to be divided. Also because the forces of today's world imperialism are emerging as a unified power. We aim to annihilate our enemies. For this aim, we have to engage in a collective struggle to win this war to expel the forces of world imperialists. Let us arise now on the popular front of world revolutionaries, to maintain the leadership of the proletariat!
      Japanese comrades, and the revolutionary comrades of China, Vietnam, and the rest of the world, let us posit the following slogan, and persist in fighting for its realization!
Anti-imperialist revolutionary forces of the world, unite!
Crush imperialism and establish the proletarian power!

*Scenes of an Israel Border Area, and Interview with a PFLP Soldier
Message from PFLP Soldier:
I would like to send a message from the frontline to the comrades in Japan. We are hoping to see the fire of revolution burn up in the world. Guevara once said he hoped to see the entire world become like Vietnam, and that is the same hope we have. That is why we hope from the bottom of our heart that, by maintaining constant communication between us, as we have learned much from your struggles, you will learn from our experiences and use the lessons. With our collective struggle, we can decisively defeat the imperialists who oppress and exploit our people. The will and emotion of people cannot be expressed by newspaper reports, but only by the commencement of armed struggle.

*Scenes of Patrolling Soldiers, and Interview with PFLP Soldier
Message from PFLP Soldier:
Representing PFLP, I send this message to our Japanese comrades, revolutionary groups, and revolutionary factions. Comrades, you may have heard the news through the imperialist propaganda system that Palestinian people are currently exhausted, that they have given up struggle, and that they are defeated by the reactionary Israel. Comrades, do not believe them. We are in fact in the middle of struggle. There is no end to our struggle. We have our final purpose, and we continue to fight for its realization. No one and nothing can prevent us.
      Japanese comrades, we sincerely hope that you will fight our common enemy by supporting us. Support us by any means. Send us medicine, and everything. But the best support is that our Japanese comrades rise up and strike blows against the monster of American imperialism. Let us advance our struggle by weakening American imperialism!
Japanese comrades, we are fighting the common enemy!
We are fighting on many fronts all over the world!
Japanese comrades, let us charge together against the monster, and defeat it!

*Scenes of an Israel Border Area, and the Inauguration Meeting of the Central Red Army
A Communist League- Red Army soldier speaks:
Appeal by Imprisoned Red Army Soldier: Like the brothers of Vietnam, like the brothers of Palestine, and like the brothers of the Black Panther Party, we too have grown and learned numerous lessons through a long struggle. Our Hijack struggle of March 1970 provided us with a foray into becoming a truly international subject. Similarly, the Arms Seizure Struggle in October of the same year provided us with a foray into becoming a truly armed subject. Moreover, in this struggle we have gained valuable brothers who march together with us. PFLP and the Japan Communist Party Leftist Faction are such brothers and comrades.
      With supreme honor, we receive the message from our dearest brothers and dearest comrades, PFLP. Since our struggles and the lessons belong to the brothers and comrades of the world as common property, we too shall respond to the brothers and comrades, and send a message about our own struggles and lessons with utmost brotherly love and comradely respect.
      Revolution and war are nothing more or less than their internationality and violence. As exemplified by our hijack, PFLP's hijack, the ship Granma of Castro et al, and Russian Red Army's march into Poland, revolution is, and war is, true only in its internationality and violence, as its true substance is "borderless army."
      This is the reason why the "Anti-Imperialist/Anti-Zionist/ Third World War" that our PFLP brothers propose and practice, and the "Anti-America/Anti-Japan War" of our Chinese brothers, are, in our own words, one and the same with what we propose and practice as the "World Revolutionary War."
      Our former companions were too arrogant and Idealist. Starting from the "Anti-Stalinism," the critic of Mao as "nationalist/ empiricist," and the critic of Ho Chi Min as "Stalinist," etc – they were nothing but idealism.
      What about us? With our "transitional world theory," we were able to demonstrate relative correctness of our position, but our "world transition theory" was nothing more than "world transition theory." Since we have not been able to discover anything beyond that theory, we have been more or less idealist. However, right now, through our hijack struggle, we are beginning to grasp and substantialize something that goes beyond mere theory in the form of "borderless army." The brothers and comrades of PFLP, let us join in the great union of the "borderless army" through communication of all areas – soldiers, weapons, technology, information, sources, and theories!

*Scenes of PFLP Patrol on a Desert Area of Jordanian-Israel Border, and Interview with a Red Army Woman Soldier
A Communist League Red Army Soldier speaks: I think that the purpose of my coming to Palestine involves a question of how we grasp the world revolutionary war in our theoretical structure, in the form of a world revolutionary theory, in the confrontational phase of the struggle, and how we express it. Last year's hijack struggle of ours proved that the wave of world revolutionary war could only be guided by military actions; here arose another important question: who shares Red Army’s line? While we were able to imagine it only through petit-bourgeois news media before, we now needed to understand it by way of actually practicing the world revolution.
(. . . ) To put it straightforwardly, when I look at the issue of how Japanese class struggle will develop in the future, from afar in Palestine, I feel that (. . .) the questions of the stage of Japanese class struggle on the scale of world revolutionary development, and what we in Japan indeed share with the Palestine struggle have been asked in awfully insufficient manners. Because of such insufficiency, the awareness of problematic possessed by the nine people who went to North Korea, by me in Palestine, and by our comrades in Japan, all differ from one another, and from such disjuncture, we can only deduce the necessity of more internal violence and inter-faction politics and struggles, but the revolutionary subject, which tries to rise to the level of World Revolutionary War, has to be created through World War factions and world revolutionaries simultaneously sharing all military matters as the act of collective actions and collective military front. For that reason I anticipate the emergence of the question of a strategy for world revolution, of how we can defeat world imperialism through military actions in concert with Black Panthers and Tupamaros, and only through such united military actions, can the problem of "world party" be discussed fully, and in this sense, what we have long talked about — the formation of World Party - World Red Army - World Revolutionary War United Front — shall be realized only through actual struggle as to how to guide such a united military action.

Subtitle: The Best Form of Propaganda
Is Armed Struggle

*Scenes of Nabatie Front Base in Lebanon
Appeal to the Red Army Faction from PFLP Soldier:

We agree wholeheartedly with the Japan Red Army Faction that proposes a united action with every organization and party which is actively fighting world imperialism here and now. PFLP supports from the bottom of our heart the policy of the united military action, and is ready to participate in it. However, in our current situation, we face severe difficulty realizing such an aim. Despite the difficulty, we are prepared to support the policy as much as we can. And we bet our own possibility in the realization of the goal. We send the message of solidarity and prayer for the success of struggles waged by every comrades fighting our common enemy.
Salute, dear comrades of Japan. — General Secretary, PFLP.

Subtitle: This Is A War

*Scenes of PFLP Soldiers in Ranger Exercise
Subtitle: The Red Army-The PFLP: World War Declaration

*Scenes of PFLP Revolutionary Airport
Constructing Revolutionary Battleground Is Practicing Armed Struggle
Voice: Creating Revolutionary Battleground Is Practicing Armed Struggle

*Scenes of PFLP Revolutionary Airport
(All messages and appeals aired in mix)

*Scene of Desert in Israel Border Area
(The International is sung)
Revolution Is World War
World War
Revolution = World War
For Armed Struggle!
Grab Weapon!

(The International is sung in unison)

*"Gunpoint" in kanji is inverted.